Tafseer of Surah At-Tawbah, verse 60

۞ اِنَّمَا الصَّدَقٰتُ لِلْفُقَرَاۤءِ وَالْمَسٰكِيْنِ وَالْعَامِلِيْنَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوْبُهُمْ وَفِى الرِّقَابِ وَالْغَارِمِيْنَ وَفِيْ سَبِيْلِ اللّٰهِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيْلِۗ فَرِيْضَةً مِّنَ اللّٰهِ ۗوَاللّٰهُ عَلِيْمٌ حَكِيْمٌ - ٦٠>>

“Indeed, it is only obligatory for those the poor, the poor, amil zakat, who softened his heart (converts), to liberate my servants, to free the debtors, for those who are in the way of God and for those who are on the journey as an obligation from God. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise. ”[1]

This verse came down when the foolish hypocrites criticized Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam about the distribution of zakat, then Allah explained that Allah is the one who regulates the distribution of zakat-fitrah and does not represent the right of distribution that to other than Him, there is no intervention of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. God divides it only for those mentioned in the verse.

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ The meaning of this verse is the obligatory zakat-fitrah , in contrast to the sadaqah mustahabah which is freely given to everyone without any specialization. [2]

The scholars’ differ concerning these eight groups, whether the distribution of zakat should cover everything or as much as possible. In this case, there are two opinions:

First, it should cover everything. This is the opinion of Imam As-Syafi’I and a group of scholars’.

Second, not everything. Zakat-fitrah property can be given to one group only, although there are other groups. This is the opinion of Imam Malik and a group of Salaf and Khalaf scholars, among them, Umar, Hudhaifah, Ibn Abbas, Abul ‘Aliyah, Said bin Zubair and Mimun bin Mihran. Ibn Jabir said, “This is the opinion of most scholars’.

The mention of the groups in the verse is to explain those who are entitled, not because they have to fulfill everything. [3]

Distribution of Zakat-Fitrah

First and second, لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِين

Basically, the two conditions are the same and the same, but the poor are more concerned than the poor, so Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala mentions the poor earlier than the poor in the verse. Below we will mention some of the differences and meanings between the poor and the needy.

Imam Abu Ja’far said: Zakat-fitrah is only for the poor and needy.

The scholars' disagreed on who was referred to as the poor and needy:

Waqi, Ibn Jarir, As’as and Hasan argued, “That the so-called poor are people who have nothing while he is only holding hands in his house, while the poor are people who do not have but they are still trying to make ends meet ”.

Mujahid, “The poor are the people who do not have but they do not beg, while the poor are the people who do not have and they beg. [4]

The poor are the ones who do not have and migrate, while the poor are the people who do not have and they do not migrate. [5]

The poor are people who do not get anything or only get a small part of their needs.

Poor is someone who gets or can meet most of his needs, but not enough overall. If he can suffice as a whole then he can be said to be a rich man. [6].

Third,. الْعَامِلِين

The third of zakat-fitrah is amil zakat, that is, the person in charge of managing or taking zakat-fitrah from those who are entitled to pay zakat and then distribute it to those who are entitled as well. [7] They are entitled to a share of zakat-fitrah. An Amil should not be from the relatives of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, because they do not have the right to receive zakat based on authentic hadiths narrated by Muslim from Abdul Muttalib ibn Rabi’ah ibn al-Harits, that he and Fadl ibn Abbas begged the Prophet sallallaahu’ Alaihi wa Sallam to be used as amil zakat, then Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam replied, “Indeed, zakat-fitrah is not allowed for Muhammad Shallallahu’ Alaihi wa Sallam and his family. Indeed, zakat-fitrah is the filth (property) of man. ”[8]

The scholars' disagree on the rate given to amil zakat-fitrah :

Dlohak he thinks that amil zakat gets one-eighth of zakat-fitrah .

Yunus, Ibn Wahab and Ibn Zaid they think that an amil gets according to what he is doing.

As for the most authentic opinion and approach to the truth according to Ibn Jarir in his book Jami’ul Bayan is the second opinion, that is, an amil is given zakat-fitrah following what he has done.

Fourth, الْمُؤَلَّفَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ

That is, those whose hearts should be softened to Islam, so that they give their contribution to Islam, or Rais the people who have just converted to Islam and he is given zakat-fitrah so that they know that Islam is a true and pious religion, and to increase their faith . [9] Among those whose hearts were softened during the time of Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam were Sufyan bin Harb, Uyainah bin Badr and Aqra’ bin Habis. [10]

There are three groups: Those whose hearts are softened to convert to Islam. Those who are still weak in Islam or lmannya. Those who are given zakat-fitrah to prevent the ugliness they cause for the believers. [11]

Fifth, الرِّقَابِ

That is slaves who are in the process of freeing themselves or buying themselves from their employers. They were liberated and assisted with zakat-fitrah property. It was narrated from Hasan al-Bashri, Muqatil ibn Hayyan, Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, Said ibn Zubar an-Nakha’I, az-Zuhri, and Ibn Zaid that what is meant by riqab is “al-Mukatib” which is my servant who made a free agreement. [12]

Sixth, َالْغَارِمِين

That is a person who is in debt but not in disobedience to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, then he can not pay his debt. Mujahid said, “AlGharimin was the one who set his house on fire, then he owed it to rebuild his house.” An Imam must give property or zakat-fitrah from Baitul Mal. [13]

In this situation there are two groups:

Indebted for the benefit of the disputed person so that it is given following the rate of debt.

Debt to the individual, that is, bear a lot of debt but can not afford to pay it. [14]

A person who has a fine or a debt that must be met, while to fulfill it he must drain his wealth or he must owe to others, or owe and commit immorality and then he repents. So people like this are given zakat-fitrah .

This is based on the hadith of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam from Mrs. Sai’d Al-Khudri he said, . So Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam said, “Give alms to him,” so the people also prayed to him, but not enough to pay off his debts. So Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘Alaihi wa Sallam said to the creditors, “Take what you find, that’s all you get. (HR. Muslim). [15]

Seventh, وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّه

The scholars’ disagreed on the meaning of fi sabilillah in the verse:

Abu Yusuf said, ”

Muhammad, “People who perform Hajj.”

Some scholars’ think they are people who are seeking knowledge.

As for the one who is closest to the truth is everyone who strives to obey God and those who are on the path of truth. Wallahu ‘alam bi Shawab. [16]

Eighth, وَاِبْنِ السَّبِيلِ

Is a traveler in a country whose supply is not enough to use to return to his country even though he is rich, so he is given a sufficient amount of zakat-fitrah to return to his country. Similarly, a person who wants to travel, but does not have supplies, so he is given from the zakat-fitrah section for his supplies to go and go home. However, he was not allowed to take more than he needed. [17]

فَرِيضَةً مِن اللَّهِ َ The meaning is that this division is directly from Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala which is obligatory on people who have property from Muslims. Allah is Aware of the welfare of His creatures over whatever is obligatory upon them, nothing is vague to Him. Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala can’t oblige zakat on Muslims unless there is maslahat in it. He is the All-Wise, who governs everything. [18]

وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

From the eight masharif zakat, it can be concluded in two things: The person who is given zakat to meet his needs. People who are given zakat to benefit Muslims and Muslims. [19]

zakat-fitrah is a system designed to support Muslims and uphold Islam in society.

💰Learn more about the transformative power of Zakat here: https://t.co/zWNH3aXjua pic.twitter.com/a2oQsM9t6B

  • Yaqeen Institute (@yaqeeninstitute) September 18, 2018


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